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Very proud to have my doctoral research published in the European Journal of Social Psychology, check it out here.
"In this paper, we develop and validate the 16-item Support for Gender Equality among Men Scale (SGEMS) across four studies. Drawing on exploratory (Study 1, n = 322) and confirmatory (Study 2, n = 358; Study 4, n = 192) factor analysis, we determine a two-factor structure: public and domestic support for gender equality. In Study 3 (n = 146) and Study 4, we validate the scale by establishing its relationship with, among others, several prominent measures of sexism, a behavioural measure, and social desirability. The scale fills a psychometric gap in the literature: To date, no validated measure of support for gender equality, measuring both attitudes and behavioural intentions and focusing specifically on men, exists. Considering the recent increase in interest in men as allies of the feminist movement the scale functions as a useful tool to explore the topic in depth in future research."
After 3.5 long years of hard work, here it is: MY THESIS!!
"Despite progress, profound gender inequality prevails and is harmful to the aspirations and well-being of both women and men. While much research has focused on the circumstances that motivate women to engage in collective action to achieve gender equality, more recently, research has identified men’s support for gender equality as a crucial factor for change. In this thesis, we first review the literature on collective action for gender equality, and highlight the role of male allies against gender inequality (Chapter 1). We then review existing measures of (men’s) support for gender equality, and identify a gap in the psychometric literature. In response, we present one pilot study and four main studies developing and validating the comprehensive Support for Gender Equality among Men Scale (SGEMS), comprising a public support for gender equality and a domestic support for gender equality subscale (Chapter 2). Next, we argue that, due to the prescription to avoid everything that is considered feminine, precarious manhood beliefs might function as a barrier impeding men’s conversation about domestic support for gender equality with other men. Across three empirical studies and a meta-analysis of these studies’ results, we show that men endorsing (disagreeing with) precarious manhood beliefs report decreased (increased) levels of domestic support for gender equality in front of an audience of male peers, relative to an anonymous report. Subsequently, across a pilot study and a correlational study, we explore potential underlying motivations for these patterns, and find that feminine stigma concerns and status and employability concerns are related to a decrease in reported levels of domestic support for gender equality. We argue that restrained conversation about domestic support for gender equality slows down masculinity norm change, and hence stifles men’s actual domestic support for gender equality 6 (Chapter 3). Finally, we summarise and integrate the findings across the two empirical chapters, and discuss implications for theory and practice (Chapter 4). "
Super honored that Mayshad Mag, part of the Mayshad Foundation aiming to develop youth and women empowerment programs, contacted me to feature in their section of interviews with women who "thrive to make a change and help others around them to succeed as well". A bit unreal to be listed among some truly inspirational women. Here's my interview, but DO have a browse and read some of the other interviews as well, some great thoughts there!
This summer, BBC journalist Aoife Hayes asked me to be part of this exciting project: a podcast discussing the most important feminist topics of 2018. Listen here to Aoife, myself, and other experts in the field of gender equality discussing (1) the movements, (2) female role models, (3) the workplace, and (4) the men across four 30 minute episodes. Enjoy!
Enjoy my video on why men should and how they can support gender equality.
~Please reference: Sudkaemper, A. (20168, May 23) Domestic Support for Gender Equality. Retrieved from www.antoniasudkaemper.com
Reviving the Sisterhood within Women's Networks
“The connections between and among women are the most feared, the most problematic, and the most potentially transforming force on the planet” – Adrienne Rich
Federica Mogherini answering questions on gender and race at the European Institutions
On the 29th of January 2018, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Federica Mogherini gave a talk at the EU Commission Job Fair, and answered a couple of interesting questions on gender and race at the European institutions.
~Please reference: Sudkaemper, A. (2018, February 15) Equality Conversation. Retrieved from www.antoniasudkaemper.com
"having it all" thanks to flexible work
Frustrated with the lack of women in senior level positions, former recruiter Romanie Thomas founded Juggle Jobs, an online platform matching businesses with professionals looking for flex time employment. With the majority of these professional platform users being women, Juggle Jobs contributes to closing the gender pay- and power gaps.
How are the EU member states doing on gender equality?
Earlier this week, I was very fortunate to attend the Gender Equality Index 2017 conference. The Gender Equality Index is a tool to measure the progress of gender equality in the EU, developed by the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). The Index has six core domains - work, money, knowledge, time, power and health – and two satellite domains: violence against women and intersecting inequalities. It gives more visibility to areas that need improvement and ultimately supports policy makers to design more effective gender equality measures. The results are updated and revealed every two years at an international conference.
"In most conversations about gender inequality and violence against women, men only hear about what not to do. It is time to do more." ~~ Good Lad Initiative
The term “toxic masculinity” describes the phenomenon that our society prescribes men to act in certain ways that are often harmful to others, and even themselves. Men perceive the pressure to prove that they are “manly” by engaging in certain behaviours and avoiding others. To pass as a “real man”, for instance, men need to engage in regular sexual contact with women. This pressure has been linked to an increase in sexual harassment: Men who might not have access to the sexual experiences they are expected to have might become violent.
Presentation on the first part of my PhD research
Throughout the first half of my PhD I developed the Support for Gender Equality among Men Scale (SGEMS). In this presentation that I gave at the EASP Small Groups Meeting on Gender in Berlin (June 2017), I outline the psychometric need for this scale and present the statistics on three large-sample studies developing, replicating, and validating the scale. The two-factor scale (public support for gender equality and domestic support for gender equality) measures men's active everyday support for gender equality with 16 items.
The video is missing 2 seconds in the end - hours of playing around with various video cutting programmes did not yield in a better result... I apologize!
~Please reference: Sudkaemper, A. (2017, August 22) Support for Gender Equality among Men Scale (SGEMS). Retrieved from www.antoniasudkaemper.com
Emily Harris (University of Queensland) about her research on benevolent sexism and orgasm frequency in women
Orgasms are great. AmIright? But it’s a lot more difficult for a woman to orgasm compared to a man – on average. Yes – we have different machinery – men have penises and women have vaginas. This is a biological fact. But there is more to the story than only biology.
Some women orgasm every time they have sex. Heck, some women orgasm from a nipple-stroke! And on the other hand, there are lots of women who find it much harder to orgasm. This has to be about something more than biology – these women have, for the most part, the same biological machinery. There is likely a psychological component to it. That is what my research is all about.
Jenny Veldman (KU Leuven) about her research on women's underrepresentation in certain fields of work and in leadership positions
My field of research often elicits discussions with family and friends about the underrepresentation of women in certain fields of education or work. For instance, we discuss why women are underrepresented in fields such as the police force, science, technology, engineering and mathematics (so-called STEM-fields); and why women are underrepresented in leadership positions across work fields. Two things always come up in these discussions: (1) “But the time that women are prevented to go into these fields and positions is behind us.” and (2) “But maybe women don’t want to be in those fields, why should we force them?”.
Aife Hopkins-Doyle (University of Kent) about her research on sexism
As 2016 comes to a close, world events have reminded us of the incessant hostile treatment of women in society. Indeed, no one has reminded us more than President-elect Trump. His campaign was marred by accusations of misogyny, sexual assault and rape. He was recorded saying he “grabs women by the pussy” and, further used justifications of being “a star” for his apparent entitlement to women’s bodies. Unsurprisingly, he is currently accused of the sexual assault of 15 women, including a 13 year old girl. Trump also believes women should be “punished” for having abortions, and regularly reduces women’s value to that of their appearance, describing them as “fat” “ugly” and “dogs” (The list goes on here). But hostility is not the only type of sexism women experience. Trump also believes Clinton did not have “the look of a president”, is quoted as “wanting to help women” and telling female job applicants “they will make good wives”. Research findings reflect these sentiments - women are also less likely to be hired for a “male typical” job, they are more likely to receive help from others, even when they have not asked for any, and are disproportionately positively stereotyped as more communal and better suited to domestic roles. While these experiences disadvantage women, they are not seen as linked to “pussy grabbing” hostility toward women, nor are they perceived as sexism. But why is this?
Research and Practice in one of Germany's most successful companies
I was delighted when the director of Team Change & Transformation at METRO Duesseldorf agreed to having a chat with me about inclusion and diversity. Academia is oftentimes rather theoretical, which is why I am always interested in being in touch with the “real world”. I strongly believe that in order to produce valuable research results that can be applied outside of our research laboratories we need to uphold a constant discourse with practitioners. Therefore, I was very excited to be granted insight into one of Germany’s most successful companies.
Thoughts from Francine M. Deutsch's Study on Equally Shared Parenting
Passion for research makes you do strange things. The other day, I spent an hour at a train station flicking through “Men’s Health Dad”, and then bought the magazine to continue on the train. My excitement must have seemed somewhat bizarre, considering that I will never be a Dad, and will not be a Mom for at least a couple of years.
However, the magazine perfectly complements a book I had just read: “Halving it all – How Equally Shared Parenting Works” by Francine M. Deutsch. Deutsch is a social psychologist who investigates the role of gender in everyday life. In her book, Deutsch describes the results of an extensive study she conducted on “equally sharing couples”, that is, both partners work for at least 20 hours a week for pay and have at least one child under the age of 18 living at home. During hour-long interviews with 150 couples Deutsch explored the roles of both partners.
Why do women take charge in times of crisis?
When the Exeter student journal sent out a call for an article on female leaders I was quick to commit to writing an article on this topic. My supervisor Prof. Michelle Ryan has done some fantastic research on how women often take charge in times of crises and what consequences this might have. As the political situation becomes more challenging in both the UK and the US, we see two women leaders emerging, and the research line on the glass cliff seems more relevant than ever before.
~Please reference: Sudkaemper, A. (2016, August 31) On a glass-cliff. Retrieved from www.antoniasudkaemper.com
At the end of July, I attended my first ever conference where I had the chance to present my research to the larger research community for the first time. The biennial International Society for Justice Research (ISJR) conference took place in Canterbury - for 5 days researchers from all over the world gathered in this beautiful English town to discuss matters of social justice. Attending this conference at a time where racism and sexism, racism, and the like seem on the raise, it functioned as a reminder that there are in fact a lot of good people out there who care to make a positive difference to this world.
What Hillary Clinton Means to Me
This past week, I spent a lot of time watching the speeches of the National Democratic Convention, and I shed a lot of tears in the process. Completely inspired by Michelle Obama's, and then by Barack Obama's speech, both praising unity and equal rights, I did not expect my levels of emotion to raise even more. Then, I found myself weeping in front of the screen when Chelsea Clinton introduced her mother and hero as the next democratic candidate for presidency of the United States of America.
Why Gender Equality Needs Men and Men Need Gender Equality - Part 2
We need to reduce violence against women, break the glass ceiling, and close the pay gap. When gender equality is discussed, it often sounds like women would be the sole beneficiaries of a more gender equal world. Indubitably, physical disadvantage and economic suppression likely make women those who suffer most from gender inequality, but men do experience profound disadvantage from gender inequality, too. Three points, all backed up by research, make clear that gender equality is beneficial to women, to men, and to society as a whole.
Why Gender Equality Needs Men and Men Need Gender Equality - Part 1
We frequently perceive “gender equality” as something that is of concern to women. Women are not only expected to be the main contributors carrying the cause forward, but are also portrayed as the sole gainers by a more equal society.
There are rarely more than a handful of men at events with a feminist spin. Popular literature discussing gender equality are almost exclusively aimed at women. People are, in fact, startled when a man proclaims that he is feminist.
Thanks, but I am More than Eyes, Hair, and Lips
The media are sexist. Pop music in particular is sexist. No
news here. And still – I was surprised when I started paying attention to the lyrics of some of the songs on my IPod. I have always avoided music that bluntly degrades women, but assumed that
songs that are played on the radio everyday cannot be that bad. Turns out
they are. One mainstream artist that specifically struck me for sexist content was Bruno Mars. Bruno Mars is most certainly not the only artist portraying problematic content, and his work needs
to be interpreted as a reflection of problematic standards in the industry as a whole. However, his work lends itself particularly well to this discussion as it virtually covers every facet of
sexism - from benevolent to patronizing to objectifying, and from hostile to plain violent.
Some Daily Experiences of a Woman (Guest Blog by Anonymous)
Let me first introduce myself. For the past four years I was a student in a typically female field of study and I recently transitioned to professional job in a mainly male environment. Throughout my studies, I became increasingly interested in gender studies. Especially the question whether and in what way women might still be disadvantaged in our society captured my attention, not only because this question concerns myself but also because half of the population are women. For a long time, I had considered gender- inequality a non-issue in the western world; I thought it was no longer a relevant topic. When I read a lot about possible explanations for the gender pay gap (see discrimination, choice, evolution, the glass ceiling), I became increasingly confused.
A Feminist Book Review of Angels & Demons (German: Illuminati)
Last Christmas I finally found the time to read a book I had been wanting to read for a while – Dan Brown’s Angels and Demons (German: Illuminati). Having consumed myriads of scientific papers since I started my PhD in September, I was excited by the prospect of literature without a method section or statistics. Additionally, it seemed sensible to take a break from the incriminatory topic of gender inequality… I wish. Once you turn your attention to it, gender appears literally everywhere. And so here I am, reviewing a bestseller from a feminist perspective.
I had the honour to present at the March 2016 Women in Science Seminar in Penryn (UK), aimed at A-Level and undergraduate students. A variety of female researchers in the sciences presented their research and career trajectories in order to inspire and encourage the (mainly female) attendees. Watch my presentation to hear more about the importance of women in science, and the barriers women still face. (Apologies for the "ums", bear with me, I'm still learning!)
~Please reference: Sudkaemper, A. (2016, April 27) Women in science. Retrieved from www.antoniasudkaemper.com
A Conversation with Charlotte Proudman
Discovering a new inspirational person within the feminist movement is always exciting. I still remember when I
first heard about Charlotte Proudman. For those of you who follow the topic of gender
equality the name might sound familiar. Charlotte (27) is a barrister in family law and human rights law, and is currently undertaking doctoral research on female genital mutilation at the
University of Cambridge. In September 2015, Charlotte experienced international media attention.
A Debate on the Impact of Evolution on Gender Roles
I was delighted when Simon Moore wrote about the role of men in achieving gender equality in the Cambridge BlueSci Magazine. Please follow the links to read Moore's article about the evolutionary perspective on gender and my response to it. Men have not necessarily created gender equality, but they certainly contribute to its sustainment. Therefore, their involvement in achieving gender equality is imperative.
~Please reference: Sudkaemper, A. (2016, March 16) More than evolution. Retrieved from www.antoniasudkaemper.com
Flaws in Our Beloved Wedding Traditions
It has begun - that long anticipated period in your mid to late 20's when everyone seems to be getting married. It hit me when just recently three of my friends announced their engagements within a single week. Whilst I am far from getting married myself (I think), it is undeniable that the number of those cartoon ring symbols on my facebook feed has increased a lot recently.
Not Crystal Clear: Explaining Gender Inequality at the Workplace 5/5
"You had some solid argumanets (and some less solid), I think you did quite well by staying rational, my compliments."
Now, this was one of the concluding remarks of one of the commenters on the original article, it was posted after I had carefully explained and referenced my viewpoint, in a similar fashion to my previous articles here.
Not Crystal Clear: Explaining Gender Inequality at the Workplace 4/5
"I think the whole gender equality issue is essentially a non-discussion, because the beauty of gender lies in the fact that they're not equal (but opposite), yin and yang as the basis of nature, and anyone who denies that must be out of his mind."
Inadvertently, this comment taps into a whole field of research, literature, and a fervent "very-much-so" discussion.
Not Crystal Clear: Explaining Gender Inequality at the Workplace 3/5
"The gender pay gap is completely due to women's decisions to stay at home with the children."
A myriad of myths surrounding the gender pay gap exist, or -wait- was the pay gap a myth in itself? Admittedly, the concept is somewhat confusing considering that paying different wages for the same position is legally prohibited.
Not Crystal Clear: Explaining Gender Inequality at the Workplace 2/5
"She is talking about women only, but men also experience a lot of disadvantage."
While feminism and gender equality are certainly not exclusively about women, a focus on women oftentimes prevails as it is women who have in the past experienced and are still experiencing more disadvantages than men. Not only are women more frequently the victims of sexual harrassment and abuse (both in the workplace and otherwise), but they also face a more subtle class of sexism resulting in occupational discrimination in the form of lower pay and fewer promotions.
Not Crystal Clear: Explaining Gender Inequality at the Workplace 1/5
I am a feminist. I also support the feminist cause through my research, which focuses on gender equality in the workplace. Expressing both my professional interest and supporting a cause close to my heart, I happily shared an article written by the never-tiring guardian feminist Jessica Valenti on Facebook the other day.